Introduction

Staci Fox, President and CEO

When the 2024 Legislative Session began on January 8th, Georgia was sitting on $10.9 billion in undesignated, unspent public funds and a $5.4 billion Revenue Shortfall Reserve (RSR). The possibilities to make big investments on behalf of all Georgians were endless. Late last year, GBPI pondered Georgia’s $16 Billion Question: Will the State Equitably Invest in Its People?

Governor Kemp spoke of new medical schools, GDOT projects and investments in student transportation in his State of the Union address. Meanwhile, the press was buzzing with talk of Medicaid expansion from the leaders of both chambers.

While there were certainly some promises kept and big wins, there were also some devasting losses that will have far-reaching impacts. GBPI ends the 2024 session thankful for all those who showed up for 40 days to deliver good governance for the people. We are even more grateful for the opportunity to continue advocating for the well-being of ALL Georgians.

So, let’s pick up where we left off on Crossover Day 2024.

The Budget

Danny Kanso, Director of Legislative Strategy and Senior Fiscal Analyst

Every session, the General Assembly is constitutionally required to pass a budget to fund state government. The budget embodies what is important to elected officials and reflects their values and priorities. House Bill 916—Georgia’s $36.1 billion Fiscal Year (FY) 2025 budget—marks the state’s first full-year budget that increases per-person spending above the state’s pre-pandemic levels, reflecting a modest inflation-adjusted increase from $3,008 (FY 2020) to $3,218 (FY 2025). Although the budget reflects an 11.3% increase ($3.7 billion) from the original FY 2024 budget, Gov. Kemp’s FY 2025 revenue estimate for tax collections projects a $1.3 billion decrease in revenue (-4%) from the amount reported for FY 2023. This shift falls in line with a four-year pattern of historically low revenue estimates, resulting in unprecedented levels of unspent general funds. Georgia’s FY 2025 state budget does not incorporate any funding from the state’s unprecedented $16.3 billion general fund surplus.

Beyond salary increases for teachers and cost of living increases for state employees—along with $248 million to shore up the State Health Benefit Plan (SHBP)—the General Assembly’s FY 2025 budget includes:

  • Approximately $97 million added to the lottery-funded Georgia Pre-K program and $9.3 million for the Childcare and Parent Services (CAPS) program. The lottery resources will increase pay for pre-K lead and assistant teachers, reduce the maximum class size, increase funding for student transportation costs and provide operation support to private providers.
  • $6.3 million allocated to provide free breakfast and lunch to low-income K-12 students in Georgia’s public schools.
  • A $200 million annual increase in pupil transportation funding, accompanied by $5 million for bus driver salary increases, covering approximately 31% of total student transportation costs (up from 17% in 2023). Additionally, $20 million will be allocated for school bus replacement.
  • Increased funding to improve Medicaid reimbursements and coverage, including $6.8 million for adult dental services, $12.7 million for primary and OB/GYN care, and $16 million for the Georgia Pediatric Program (GAPP).

In February, Gov. Kemp signed House Bill 915 into law, enacting the $37.9 billion Amended Fiscal Year (AFY) 2024 budget. The amended budget represents an increase of 16.9% ($5.4 billion) from the original FY 2024 budget passed last year and makes up to $2 billion in funding available from Georgia’s undesignated reserves. However, if revenue collections continue at the current pace, the state will likely retain all or most of that $2 billion, which may be offset by the surplus generated for FY 2024. The AFY 2024 budget also allocates over $2.7 billion in funding for infrastructure projects, including $392 million for repairs and improvements to the state Capitol building and complex, $50 million for a new medical school at the University of Georgia, $178 million for a new dental school at Georgia Southern University, and $436.8 million for the construction of a new state prison facility in Washington County.

Revenue

Danny Kanso, Director of Legislative Strategy and Senior Fiscal Analyst

Georgia’s annual tax revenue collections are up year-over-year through February by $223 million. The state maintains a balance of $5.4 billion in its  Revenue Shortfall Reserve (RSR), along with an additional $10.9 billion in undesignated state reserves. Georgia continues to hold most of its surplus funds rather than invest them in core services to meet the needs of Georgians and their communities.

Last year, members of the House and Senate undertook a comprehensive evaluation of the state’s tax code as part of the General Assembly’s Joint Tax Credit Review Panel,  authorized under 2022’s HB 1437. Five pieces of legislation emerged from the panel’s work, which all passed the chamber in which they originated by Crossover Day. Of the measures introduced, three were passed into law. However, HB 1180 did not make it through after being significantly altered in the Senate Finance Committee. The House then introduced another version of reforms to the film tax credit, which was eventually defeated in the Senate. Efforts to divide Georgia’s Low Income Housing Tax Credit into a tiered system that would have reduced overall funding also fell short of final passage. The legislative package includes SB 366, which makes modest improvements to transparency laws related to tax expenditures. These enhancements include mandating annual cost estimates to be presented along with appropriations legislation, improving the ongoing process of assessing the impact of current and proposed tax provisions and requiring the Ways and Means and Senate Finance Committee to consider at least 12 economic analyses each year. The General Assembly enacted HB 1181 to add sunsets to a series of tax credits and standardize the time limitations within which these tax credits must be used.  HB 1192  discontinues the state’s sales tax exemption for high-technology data center equipment and creates the Special Commission on Data Center Energy Planning.

The lone measure to reform a tax expenditure program introduced as part of the package was HB 1180, which proposed common-sense safeguards to Georgia’s Film Tax Credit, including an annual cap on the amount of credits that can be transferred (equivalent to 2.5% of the state budget, or about $902 million in FY 2025) and new requirements to obtain the full 30% credit that prioritize hiring in-state vendors and workers. The Senate Finance Committee modified the cap to 2.3% of the state budget, which amounts to $830 million. They also added new exemptions for productions that would have significantly reduced the provision’s capacity to limit the state’s annual financial exposure to transferable tax credits. This move was aimed at giving three large production facilities preferential treatment to evade the cap. The Finance Committee also voted to remove a 5-year sunset originally included in the committee substitute. Despite these changes to loosen restrictions for what would remain the nation’s most generous film tax credit, the Senate Rules Committee failed to advance HB 1180 for consideration by the full Senate.

In the hours just before Sine Die, members of the House reconfigured SB 349 to include provisions on the film tax credit. They also made changes to a measure, previously proposed as HB 1182, to modify the state’s Low Income Housing Tax Credit which reduces the amount allotted to certain projects. The bill proposed linking a 2.5% cap on transferable film tax credits to the balance of Georgia’s RSR, whereby the limit would not go into effect unless the state held less than 10% of the prior year’s revenues in General Fund Reserves. Presently, Georgia maintains a balance of approximately 45% of the prior year’s General Fund revenues. The proposed measure would have required productions to meet new criteria to be eligible for the full 30% tax credit (up from 20%). The new criteria would have established basic guardrails for the activities that are being subsidized by the state. The Senate did not consider the House-passed version of SB 349 before adjourning, leaving many concerns about the state’s fiscal exposure to the film tax credit and its lack of basic safeguards unaddressed.

Other positive developments included the passage of HB 1021 to increase the state income tax exemption allowed for a dependent, such as a child or elder parent, from $3,000 to $4,000, amounting to about $54 per year in tax savings per dependent and an overall cost of $152 million in FY 2025.

Several new policies are likely to drain state revenues in the years ahead. The General Assembly passed HB 1015, which was introduced as a priority of Gov. Kemp’s to reduce the state’s personal income tax rate to 5.39%. The measure is retroactively effective as of January 1, 2024. Most Georgians will not notice the impact of this change, which is estimated to save middle-income households an average of $34 over a full year. This change is expected to cost  $361 million in FY 2025. Just 13.1% of the overall savings ($47.3 million of $361 million) will benefit the first 60% of Georgia households earning up to $77,000 annually.

Another measure, HB 1023, secured passage in the House to reduce the state’s flat corporate income tax rate from 5.75% to match the personal income tax rate going forward. In FY 2025, the corporate tax rate would be reduced to 5.39% at an estimated cost of $151 million, with the majority of the benefits going to out-of-state corporate shareholders.[1] This cluster of tax breaks could be strengthened and made more impactful for low- and middle-income Georgians in the future by adding an Earned Income Tax Credit or by enacting similar refundable tax credit programs such as those proposed in HB 79 and SB 118, which did not advance after receiving an earlier legislative hearing.

Despite strong interest in exploring the issue at the start of the session, lawmakers did not advance legislation to lift the state’s tobacco tax, which ranks 49/50 nationally at $0.37  per pack of cigarettes in contrast to the national average of $1.93.

After a spirited debate that saw more extreme measures defeated, the House and Senate advanced HB 581 and HR 1022, which allows for a statewide referendum to cap annual assessment increases for homesteaded property taxes (owner-occupied primary residences) at the rate of inflation. Legislators also included a measure allowing local governments to substitute some property tax revenues with a one cent sales tax. The measure includes a provision that allows local governments to opt out of the cap and sales tax substitution option. Legislators passed these bills in addition to House Bill 808, which creates a ballot measure to increase the statewide tax exemption for all personal property from $7,500 to $20,000.  House Bill 1019  also passed, which increases the existing statewide homestead exemption from $2,000 to $4,000 at an estimated cost of up to $126 million.

Education

Dr. Stephen Owens. Director of Education and Ashley Young, Education Analyst

SB 237, formerly HB 1124, was a last-minute vehicle regarding college completion grants via language substitute. Unfortunately, the Senate did not agree to the substitution to keep the bill alive. SB 237 would have lowered the threshold of courses that students in need must complete to receive a “completion grant” and finish their degree. HB 1435, passed in 2022, allowed individuals who have completed 80% of their degree requirements to qualify for a completion grant. SB 237 proposed that individuals in a four-year program complete 70% of their courses and those in a two-year program complete 45% of their courses to qualify for a completion grant. SB 237 also extended the sunset of this bill from 2025 to 2027.

While the following two bills did not pass, lawmakers’ efforts to make college more affordable and accessible are steps in the right direction. This session saw the introduction of SB 526, “The Good Faith Grant,” and HB 853, which would repeal the Post-secondary Education Act of 1990 to seek parity with federal law. SB 526, The Good Faith Grant Act, aims to establish a comprehensive need-based financial aid program for students attending two-year and four-year colleges in Georgia who demonstrate financial need. To remove barriers to higher education, lawmakers propose the Good Faith Grant to assist Georgia students with college affordability. SB 526 was filed on February 16 and referred to the Senate Higher Education Committee, but the bill did not have a hearing. It is a small but significant step that will propel Georgia’s need-based aid forward in the coming years.

In addition to a comprehensive need-based aid policy, GBPI will track HB 853, a legislative priority that centers on racial equity. This bill allows students who have drug convictions involving marijuana or a controlled substance to become eligible for the HOPE Scholarship. The House Higher Education Committee heard HB 853 once, but the bill did not have a second hearing in committee and, therefore, will not crossover for further consideration this Legislative Session. At GBPI, we will continue to support policies such as HB 853 and SB 526 that seek to provide post-secondary access and affordability for Georgia students.

The highly anticipated sports betting legislation SB 386 passed in the Senate with a constitutional amendment, SR 579. 80% of the proceeds would have been allotted to fully fund pre-kindergarten and provide financial aid to students through tuition grants, scholarships, and loans, provided that sports betting was legalized.. Halted in the House Rules Committee, SB 386 and SR 579 did not advance to the House floor for a vote and, therefore, did not pass this Legislative Session.

In pre-K through 12, a trio of bills that would have  significantly reformed  public schools funding failed to pass: HB 3, HB 668 and SB 284. Georgia is one of only six states without specific funding to educate students living in poverty, and all three of the bills would have created such a grant. SB 284 did, however, receive a committee hearing, which was a substantial step toward cultivating key conversations to support  K-12 public school students experiencing poverty.

SB 105 passed both the House and Senate. This bill increases and tweaks the Public School Employees Retirement System (PSERS). While teachers and other certified school employees are eligible for the Teachers Retirement System, many employees, such as bus drivers and custodial workers, are only allowed to participate in PSERS, a pension with a significantly smaller retirement benefit. SB 105 increases the monthly benefit and provides the Employees Retirement System of Georgia, which manages PSERS, the authority to increase the pension without legislative approval.

Vouchers remain unpopular with Georgians, but Georgia lawmakers pushed through Senate Bill 233 by a single vote late in session. SB 233 creates a new authority within the Georgia Student Finance Commission to implement a $6,500 voucher for private educational expenses for students enrolled in the bottom quartile of schools as ranked by the College and Career Readiness Performance Index (CCRPI). GBPI analysis shows that CCRPI is directly related to the percentage of students living in poverty.

We continue to hold concerns regarding the standard of private schools that qualify for eligibility. Private schools may be in the process of accreditation but do not have to be fully accredited. Additionally, they have the freedom to reject students based on factors such as income, disability, and language proficiency. This could have a financial impact on public schools that lose enrollment. Included in the House version of SB 233 is a provision that would fund public schools’ capital improvements for new pre-K classrooms. While this is a positive provision, it does not change the damage private school vouchers will do to public schools.

The House and Senate agreed to invest about $97 million into the lottery-funded Georgia Pre-K program and $9.3 million in the Childcare and Parent Services (CAPS) program. The lottery resources will increase pay for pre-K lead and assistance teachers, reduce the maximum class size from 22 to 20 over four years, increase support for student transportation costs and provide operation support to private providers. As noted above, SB 233 includes a mechanism for public schools to get funded to build more pre-K classrooms. The funding for the CAPS programs will increase the reimbursement rate for child care providers; this is a modest, but critical investment in our zero to three education workforce.

Immigrant Communities

David Schaefer, Vice President of Research and Policy

Three harmful immigration-related bills advanced this session under the guise of public safety reform. However, these bills increase burdens on overstretched local police and jail personnel by withholding state and federal funds and mandating cooperation with Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). HB 1105, The Georgia Criminal Alien Track and Report Act of 2024, passed both the House and Senate and is headed to the Governor’s desk for signature. The bill included language that would effectively turn all of Georgia into a statewide 287(g) jurisdiction. This means that the state would be required to cooperate with ICE in tracking and reporting undocumented residents, a practice that was previously only followed by a few local governments on a voluntary basis. At the same time, HB 301 almost passed both the House and Senate. This legislation would have allowed any Georgian to sue local governments that violate  Georgia’s “sanctuary” policies statute.

SB 420 increases the possibility of depriving immigrants of their property rights while having little impact on the hostile foreign governments the legislation is meant to target. SB 420 passed both chambers and is awaiting the governor’s signature. SB 420 is similar to HB 452 and SB 132 from last year’s Legislative Session.

Together, this trio of harmful bills removes the ability of local governments (who know their communities) to make the best decisions for their communities. These bills thus deprive residents of the representation of their local officials. The bills also add burdensome compliance requirements and expose local governments to legal liability. They also risk furthering a pattern of stripping communities of color of land ownership with potentially little value added from a national security perspective. Finally, the bills support a broad anti-immigrant narrative at a moment when heightened public tensions could lead to discrimination and violence against immigrant communities.

In addition to harmful bills, three beneficial, immigrant-inclusive bills were introduced this session; however, none passed.

SB 478, The Freedom to Drive Act, expands driving authorization for non-US citizens, helping them get to work, care for their children and more fully participate in their communities. This bill is important because Georgia ranks 27th in public transit spending. Families depend on driving to work to reach doctor’s appointments and shop for groceries. With an increase in local cooperation with ICE like that mandated in HB 1105, licensing undocumented drivers remains a critically important step in protecting immigrant communities.

In higher education, non-US citizens of Georgia who have obtained a high school or high school equivalency diploma and are legally authorized to work in the state can receive in-state tuition under SB 476. This bill would cover beneficiaries of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program and refugees. Similarly, HB 131 would provide “opportunity tuition” (between 101% and 110% of in-state tuition) for recipients of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program.

Finally, HB 127 (now HB 282) would have established rules and regulations for foreign-language interpreters working with students in educational settings. It would have mandated that parents and children be notified about the availability of interpretation services during conversations pertaining to their child’s Individual Education Plan. The bill died right at the end of Sine Die due to the insertion of final-hour amendments that were not reconciled between the House and Senate.

Economic Justice

Ife Finch Floyd, Director of Economic Justice and Ray Khalfani, Senior Analyst

The legislature maintained much of the status quo around economic security in some areas and worsened the issue in others. Advancing through the committee was HB 565, which increases the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) time limit from 48 months to 60 months, increases the savings and assets limits and raises the monthly benefit to 30% of the federal poverty guidelines. However, HB 565 failed to cross over.

HB 1010 will enhance the previous efforts to provide parental leave to state and public school employees. The new bill proposes to increase the maximum parental leave from three weeks to six weeks, which is a modest improvement. However, it is important to note that the bill does not include any state funding to support it. This bill does not cover other valid reasons for workers to take paid leave, such as an extended health concern. The Senate added a useful amendment requiring state agencies and local public schools to notify employees when they are hired and annually after that about the parental leave benefit. The Senate passed a helpful amendment that mandates state agencies and local public schools to inform employees about their parental leave benefits upon being hired and annually thereafter. The Senate approved the bill and the House agreed to the amendment.

SB 362, anti-union legislation, passed out of both chambers and is on the governor’s desk for review. This bill seeks to charge and enforce repayment of “any and all” economic incentives to employers that automatically recognize and accept union representation in response to worker organizing. This bill says that employers can only recognize union representation through secret ballot union elections coordinated through the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA). This bill creates more opportunities for employers to carry out union-busting, employee intimidation and time-stalling tactics commonly practiced during secret ballot union elections. However, labor attorneys suggest that the legislation is pre-empted by federal law. There will likely be litigation if SB 362 moves toward the final step of becoming law.

Fortunately,  SB 475, a bill that could negatively impact unemployment insurance (UI), made it through committee but failed to cross over. SB 475 seeks to boost UI trust fund revenue by claiming a higher percentage of fraud penalties. Unfortunately, this bill may incentivize charging those who make honest mistakes when filing for unemployment benefits with fraud and then using the penalty revenue generated from that alleged fraud to boost the trust fund. The need for UI trust fund revenue remains a critical necessity. However, restoring the trust fund to health (it is at risk of insolvency, with only around five months of reserves to cover the average recession) requires more sustainable revenue through the state appropriations process and employer contributions. As with last year, the state continues to make UI financing choices that limit the replenishment of trust fund reserves depleted by the pandemic-triggered economic downturn.

HB 501, which failed to pass out of both chambers, sought to repeal the requirement that certain employers need an employment certificate to hire 14- and 15-year-olds for work outside school hours. This bill required no training and would have exposed young teenagers to potentially dangerous work conditions in the landscaping industry.

HB 1125 would have raised the floor for working Georgians with disabilities, phasing out sub-minimum wage and raising their pay to the federal minimum wage of $7.25. The bill crossed over but ultimately failed to pass the legislature.

Ray Khalfani, Senior Analyst

GBPI recognizes that the safety of children and everyone entering and leaving the schoolhouse is essential. However, GBPI has major concerns that some of the proposed bills may not fully consider the impact of enforcement mechanisms like speeding cameras. For example, HB 348, which failed to pass out of both chambers this year, sought to address school zone safety by ushering in an expansion of automated speeding devices in school zones as the primary enforcement tool for school traffic safety. This bill would remove authority from schools to apply to the state Department of Transportation for school zone speeding camera permits. It would give that authority to local governments or local law enforcement agencies instead.

It is anticipated that the use of speeding cameras in school zones will increase exponentially, which could provide an additional source of revenue for local governments and law enforcement agencies. However, this could lead to increased fines and fees, further burdening Georgians who are already struggling financially.

Legislation that will exacerbate entanglement with the criminal legal system also advanced. SB 100 and SB 63 would increase the number of offenses mandated for cash bail. The legislature made similar attempts last year through multiple bills that failed. SB 100 mandates cash bail for anyone facing criminal charges who fails to appear for a court date in the past ten years, including those related to traffic offenses. SB 100 did not advance this session.

SB 63 is currently awaiting the governor’s signature and, if signed, would introduce 30 new charges that would require mandatory cash bail. These charges include missing a court date for a traffic ticket more than once, charges typically associated with protesting and charges frequently brought against unhoused individuals in Georgia. The bill restricts the number of times a person or organization can post bail for someone. It also limits who can set bail terms and puts more constraints on the functions of bail funds.

While harmful criminal legal system bills continue to advance year after year, there are occasional positive measures that do make a difference.  HB 926 crossed over and proposes a streamlined process for license restoration and a court date rescheduling for individuals with a single instance of failing to appear in court and having their driver’s license suspended. This bill addresses the negative impact of driver’s license suspensions on Georgia’s workforce.

SB 157 and SB 512, which provide second-chance economic opportunities for Georgians with criminal legal system entanglement, also crossed over but failed to pass out of both chambers. SB 157 offered a more streamlined and accessible path to occupational licenses. SB 512 (previously HB 909) would have ensured that those given a second chance through the First Offender Act would have their criminal records restricted and sealed from private background checks conducted by non-sensitive employers, housing and education providers.

Health

Leah Chan, Director of Health Justice and Hillary Dong, Fellow

Expanding access to life-saving health care for hundreds of thousands of uninsured Georgians has garnered significant attention this Legislative Session. On March 21st, the Senate’s Regulated Industries and Utilities Committee had the state’s first-ever hearing on a Medicaid expansion bill. Senator David Lucas introduced a substitute to HB 1077 called ‘PeachCare Plus.’ That substitute authorized the Department of Community Health to submit a waiver for federal approval that would close the coverage gap through a premium assistance model. Leveraging federal financial incentives offered under the Affordable Care Act and the American Rescue Plan, the state would buy qualified health plans for low-income Georgians on the health insurance marketplace under the Affordable Care Act and American Rescue Plan. The Chairman cast the deciding tie vote, preventing the bill from progressing despite bipartisan Committee support.

Governor Kemp has signaled his continued desire to pursue the Pathways to Coverage program and, in February 2024, announced a lawsuit against the Biden Administration to extend the timeline for the demonstration. Pathways to Coverage expands access to health care for Georgians with lower incomes who work, attend school, or volunteer at least 80 hours per month. Despite an initial investment of about $26 million in combined state and federal funds, that program has enrolled less than 4,000 Georgians within the first eight months (as of mid-February)—amounting to about 1% of the eligible population. Almost 82% of Georgia voters agree that the state should do more to improve access to health care, and closing the coverage gap is a fiscally responsible and racially just solution that the state can and must take back up next session.

For many years, the General Assembly has also grappled with Certificate of Need laws, which regulate how the state approves expenditures for creating new or expanding existing health care facilities. HB 1339 reforms Certificate of Need, increases the Rural Hospital Tax Credit cap and establishes a Comprehensive Health Coverage Commission to advise the General Assembly on health care access and quality for uninsured and low-income Georgians. HB 1339 passed both chambers and is headed to the Governor’s desk for further action. Although the Comprehensive Health Coverage Commission may aid in bringing attention to the necessity of closing the coverage gap, the research has already been done and the evidence is resoundingly clear—closing the coverage gap is a good deal for Georgians and our state’s bottom line.

Georgia continues to grapple with too many women dying of preventable causes during and after pregnancy and a concerning increase in babies dying during infancy. HB 1037 creates the Georgia Commission on Maternal and Infant Health, which will submit a report with policy recommendations to the Governor and General Assembly by June 2026. It is important to remain focused on the issue at hand; however, the membership of the Commission should be revised to include individuals from Georgia who have lived experience. This action is especially important for Black women who are at a higher risk of maternal mortality compared to white women in Georgia. HB 1037 was added to an existing bill, HB 1046, and is headed to the Governor’s desk.

SB 293 passed both chambers and is on its way to the Governor’s desk. The bill changes the qualifications required for district public health directors from a medical degree to a master’s degree. Additionally, some modifications to the governance structure of our state’s public health system will be made. These changes may impact our local communities’ ability to monitor and respond to health risks and ongoing public health concerns, such as maternal and infant mortality.

HB 404, the Safe at Home Act, is headed to the Governor’s desk after crossing over last year. The bill creates modest tenant protections, requiring landlords to ensure rental properties are fit for human habitation, creating a three-day grace period to allow renters to pay rent before landlords can file for eviction and limiting security deposits to a maximum of two months’ rent. Though the bill does not create a legal definition for what is considered “fit for human habitation,” it is still a much-needed step forward to secure healthy housing in Georgia.

As the business of the General Assembly ended last night, we reflected on some of the progress made and some of the bumps in the democratic processes in our state. GBPI will continue to work at the intersection of research and advocacy through the lens of the state’s fiscal resources to push toward a Georgia where everyone is thriving, not just some. That us a wrap for the 2024 Legislative Session. Next up from our team will be a deep dive into the FY25 budget. Stay tuned for more updates by signing up for our newsletter here.

[1] Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy, February 2024.

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